Logical Errors


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. Philosophically speaking, or even theologically sepaking, it may tell us something about the universe in that it is easier to be wrong about something than it is to be correct.

Here you will find an inexhaustive list of logical fallacies that may help you to be correct in your thinking. Good Luck!

Argumentum ad ...

The traditional classification of fallacies of reasoning describes many of them as involving "argument to..." The include:
  • ad ignorantiam
    The proposition is true because it has not been shown to be false, or vice versa.
  • ad baculum
    (literally, arguing to a cudgel): supporting a conclusion by highlighting the dire consequences of not believing it
  • ad hominem
    attempting to disprove what a person holds by attacking the person (less commonly, supporting a person's contention by praising the person), or more generally, arguing in a way that may or may not be forceful against a particular person's position, but which does not advance matters for those who do not hold that person's particular combination of beliefs.
  • ad misericordiam
    (to pity): an argument trading on the sympathies of the people
  • ad populam
    an argument appealing to the prejudices of the people
  • ad verecundiam
    appealing to an authority outside its legitimate area; illicitly trading on reverence and respect.

Argumentum ad - An Example:

"God exists because you can't show He doesn't (ad ignorantum). If you refuse to believe in Him, you will go to Hell, and suffer forever (ad baculum). Jesus believed in God, and was perfect (ad hominen #1), Stalin didn't and was a monster (ad hominem #2). Christians build hospitals for the common good (ad misericordiam), and you simply can't trust an atheist (ad populam) to do that which is why an atheist president has never bben elected. Look at Einstein; he believed in God - do you think you're moreintelligent than him?" (ad verecundiam).